We know how much soil is so useful to us. Healthy soil is required for various types of flora, vegetables, medicines and fruits etc. The balanced amount of healthy dirt contains different nutrients. But if for some reason there is such an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological properties of soil, which would have harmful effects on our health and other organisms and trees, or by the destruction of the natural quality and utility of soil. It is called soil pollution.
Due to this the soil is not only polluted, but other natural resources like water, air and vegetation etc. are also being badly affected.
Why is the soil polluted?
Due to increasing evolution and industrial revolution, man is running behind various types of amenities. Due to the growing population, various types of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are being used in the greed of crop production.
Soil is becoming polluted by such activities. In fact, the reasons for polluting the soil can be kept in two classes – Natural causes and human-caused causes. The truth is that the basic properties of soil are changing due to natural and man-made reasons.
Soil pollution causes by Nature
Natural causes of soil pollution include excessive rainfall, high wind speed, high temperatures, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes etc. These are the causes on which there is no control of human. The details of various natural causes are as follows.
- By the way we know that rain is necessary for good crop, but when there is excessive rainfall, the mineral salts present in the soil are damaged and due to excessive drainage the soil gets erosion, resulting in good soil rains. Water flows along. Soil erosion, along with rain water, is called soil erosion i.e. soil erosion. If the water gets filled in the lower places due to excessive rainfall, then the mineral salts present in the soil go into the lower layer of soil, which affects the nutrient capacity of the soil. Due to soil erosion, soil fertility also decreases.
- Due to strong winds, there is soil pollution. Especially in arid lands and semi-arid land areas where there are no vegetation, due to the high wind speed, the loose soil of the upper surface of the ground blows with the wind, due to which the nutrient capacity of the soil is affected.
- Similarly, when the temperature of a particular region is high, the environmental friend organisms like earthworms and nitrogenic bacteria present in the soil are affected, due to which there is a decrease in soil quality and the soil becomes polluted.
- There is also soil pollution due to eruption of the volcano. Not only this, the ground explodes itself, but soil pollution is caused by gases and lava coming out of it. These gases increase acidic rainfall and soil quality is affected.
- There is also a major cause of earthquake in the natural causes of soil pollution. The earthquake not only results in soil quality but also the soil structure due to the earthquake, the soil structure changes.
Soil pollution causes by humans
Human-caused causes are more dangerous than natural causes of soil pollution. Because in the dark race of development, the human is doing such undesirable work, from which not only the soil, but also the air and water are also badly polluted. The main causes of soil pollution are industrial wastes, chemical pesticides and composting, deforestation, explosives use and non-rotting solid waste.
- One of the major causes of human pollution is the industrial waste. Due to increasing industrialization, toxic waste products from various industries and factories are in contact with the water and reach the ground and pollute the soil there. Various polluting substances, such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides, which go out with industrial wastes, first go into the atmosphere in the form of gases, and then together with the rain, make nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which fall on the ground and there is acid on the soil Let’s make it. Apart from this, industrial solid waste also contains mercury, copper and other harmful substances, and they also pollute the soil. Many times, due to industrial waste, the land becomes barren, and there can not be anything grown.
- Another major reason for human pollution of soil pollution is the excessive use of hazardous chemical substances like various chemical fertilizers and insecticides and pesticides. In the greed of higher yielding farmers have been using excessive chemical fertilizers for crops and various types of toxic chemical substances are being used to protect crops and trees from pests and pests. Excessive use of these chemical substances not only damages the crops.
- Apart from indiscriminate harvesting of forests, there is soil pollution and soil erosion. Usually, after the rotting of leaves, which fall from trees and plants in the forest, becomes good manure, thereby making the soil more nutritious and fertile. But due to deforestation, the quality of soil affects one and the other also increases the possibility of erosion in the soil.
- Many times explosives are used for breaking large mountains and mining mining from mines. When using explosives and while taking the mineral from the mines of coal, lime etc., many particulate matter fell on the ground and polluted the soil there.
- In addition, in our daily lives, many solid waste products are released from the homes and offices which are maintained in the soil for years and years. They are not stagnant and can not be found completely with soil. There is such a solid waste of glass, metallic substances, polythene, plastics and breakdown debris of pucca houses. This not only destroys soil fertility and quality, but the ability to absorb nutrients in the soil there is destroyed. In addition to the above, there are many other causes of human pollution due to soil pollution, such as increasing water pollution, water deficiency or excessivity in different areas, increasing populations, immunization of human and animal sewage etc.
Effects of Soil Pollution
It is mandatory for the soil to remain in healthy state for human life and sustainable development. If the soil becomes polluted then it can have far-reaching adverse effects.
Some direct and indirect adverse effects are as follows: –
(i) Agricultural area will decrease.
(ii) Decrease in nitrogen fixation.
(iii) Increase in soil erosion.
(iv) Increase in salinity.
(v) Chemical substances and pesticides, which have been used to grow crops, enter the body of humans and animals by means of a diet chain, due to which many diseases spread and they die. According to an estimate, about seven lakh people per year are killed due to use in chemical fertilizers and pesticide crops.
(vi) Depilation of tank, lakes and ponds.
(vii) Emission of polluted gases
(viii) Decrease in biodiversity.
(ix) Drainage closure.
(x) Unpleasant odor
Control of Soil Pollution
The following measures can be very useful for controlling soil pollution: –
(i) Minimise the use of chemical fertilizers.
(ii) Use more dung manure and green manure to crops.
(iii) Farming from scientific crop circle i.e. after the soil productivity reduction crops, to increase the yield of pulses so that the soil fertility can be increased.
(iv) Proper management of industrial and urban waste.
(v) Educating the farmers for proper land use.
(vii) Controlling grazing.
(viii) crop rotation
(ix) Recycling and recycling of resources.