Types of pollution: All the organisms on the earth are depended on the balanced environment for their growth and development and to survive their life cycle. Balanced environment means, an environment in which each component is present in a certain quantity and proportion.
But sometimes the quantity of one or several components in the environment increase or decrease. It is either due to human or other reasons. In this situation the environment becomes pollution and the organism proves harmful to the community in some way. This ‘uncontrolled change’ in the environment is known as ‘environmental pollution’.
Types of pollution
There are mainly four types of pollution :-
1.) Soil Pollution
Any such undesirable change in the chemical, biological or physical properties in the soil, which affects human nutrition and crop production and productivity, and the quality and utility of soil are destroyed, called ‘soil pollution’.
Cadmium, chromium, copper, pesticide substance, chemical fertilizer, weed substance, toxic gases etc. are the major soil pollutants. Combining toxic and polluted materials in the soil, are the reason of soil pollution arises.
The illegal reason of suppressing wastes in soil, which adversely affects the quality of soil and health of people living on it. Pollutants present in the air also contribute to soil pollution. The pollutants present in the air through the water of the rain descend on the earth’s surface which eventually pollute the soil.
Effects of soil pollution are :-
Soil pollution affects the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and affects the production capacity of the soil.
Farmer irrigate farms with sewage water. And this reduces the number of holes present in the soil day by day and then a condition comes when the natural sewage treatment system of the soil is completely destroyed.
When the quantity of polluted components increases in the soil, they reach the water sources and increase the concentration of salts and other harmful components in them, as a result the water source is not able to drink water.
Causes of Soil Pollution are :-
- Discrete agricultural activities
- Industrial waste
- Domestic waste
- Throwing waste at open space
- Polythene bags, plastic bins
- Landfill leakage
- Uncontrolled pastoral
Measures to prevent soil pollution are :-
- Management of collection, disposal and disposal of litter.
- Treatment of sewage water which coming out of factories before reaching the soil.
- Proper disposal of waste by municipal and municipality.
- Chemical fertilizers should not be used more unnecessary.
- Use of insecticides, fungicides, and herbs etc. should be reduced.
- Awareness of the side effects of soil pollution to the general public.
2.) Water Pollution
When the outer components contained in the water change the natural properties of water in such a way that it becomes harmful to human health and its utility decreases, it is called water pollution.
Finding substances in rivers, lakes, ponds, underground and sea water, which makes water useless for humans, flora and fauna. Polluted water is dangerous for everyone’s life.
Effects of water pollution :-
- Algae are rapidly erupting in polluted water, and the remainder is destroyed except for specific types of plants.
- Affects the photosynthesis and their growth of aquatic plants.
- Drinking contaminated water causes different types of diseases to human, animals and birds.
- Polluted water spreads diseases to humans such as polio, cholera, peaches, jaundice, dead fever, viral fever etc.
Causes of water pollution are :-
- Shedding or throwing of domestic garbage in lake, river etc.
- Due to defective agricultural practices.
- Waste in large quantities by the industries, etc. to be shed in water sources such as rivers, reservoirs etc.
- Burn the dead, burnt, dead bodies into water, bust out, soap bath, animal washing and wash clothes etc.
Measures to prevent water pollution are :-
- There is a ban on the spread of dirt, soap bath and washing clothes near water bodies.
- Restriction on rowing of animals near the rivers, ponds etc.
- Restrictions on all types of wastes and waste-evacuated effluents to rivers, ponds and other water sources.
- Proper treatment of industrial waste.
- Restrictions on the excavation of dead bodies, body corpses, ashes and primly woods in river, ponds or any water body.
- Use of fertilizers and pesticides should be minimized.
- Before removing polluted water into natural water sources, it should be used to cleanse the polluted water with the help of cultivating some species of algae and hyacinth plants.
- Such fishes should be released in the water body, which carries mosquitoes eggs, larvae and aqueous weeds car erosion.
- Relese turtle in rivers and reservoirs.
- Promoting public awareness about the water pollution.
3.) Air pollution
Air is a mixture of different gases and it is found in a certain amount of air. When the external elements produced by human-born sources get lost in the quality of air, and air becomes harmful to humans, animals and plants, it is called air pollution.
The factors which cause air pollution is called air pollutants. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, chlorine, lead, ammonia, cadmium, dust etc are air pollutants when it increases in the atmosphere.
Effects of air pollution are :-
- Due to polluted air, the intensity of sunlight decreases, which affects the photosynthesis of plants.
- Air pollution affects the human respiratory system and can lead to asthma, bronchitis, headache, lung cancer, cough, eye irritation, throat pain, pneumonia, heart disease, vomiting and colds etc.
- When air is rained in polluted areas, various types of gases and toxic substances in the rain fall on the earth’s surface, which is also called ‘acid rain‘.
Causes of air pollution are :-
- Combustion of fossil fuels in the vehicles
- Smoke derived from the factories
Gases extracting by, air conditioning etc.
- Use of Insecticide and bacterial disease in the agricultural functions.
- Solvent used to make polishing and spray paint on the furniture.
- Loss of garbage wastes and cleaning of the drains.
Measures to prevent air pollution are :-
- Higher the height of fireworks in industries
- Reduce the use of coal and diesel engines.
- Carbon monoxide emissions can be reduced by the cleaning motor vehicles.
- Leadless gasoline should be used as fuel.
- Ban on the old vehicles.
- Solar energy should be used more and more in homes.
- Euro standards must be followed.
- The production and use of chlorofluorocarbon (Froon-11 and Froon-12) damaging the ozone layer so it should be cut.
- Bag filter should be used in the factories.
4.) Sound pollution
Sound pollution is considered as environmental pollution in the form of elements that harm the environment through various sources. The sound pollution is also known as sound dislocation. Excessive sound is harmful to health and is cause of imbalance for human or animal life.
The presence of undesirable sound in the atmosphere is called ‘sound pollution’. The sound creates anxiety and restlessness in humans. The normal measuring unit for sound is called decib.
Effects of sound pollution :-
- Problem in ear.
- The workers who have to work in more sound, suffer from many diseases like heart disease, physical dysfunction, blood pressure etc.
- Abortion may also occur in pregnant women with sudden high noise of explosions.
- Distortions occur in newborns of women living in constant sound.
Causes of sound pollution are :-
- Noise from motor vehicles in traffic.
- Noise from loudspeakers and dj music systems.
- Noise from machines in industries.
Measures to prevent noise pollution are :-
- Improving the structure of motor engines and the other noise generating machines.
- Establish of industries outside urban and residential habitations.
- Provide a kerpland and hawkers to the workers of the industries.
- Vehicle Cyleners from regularly.
- Strictly restrictions on band-bajans, loudspeakers.