Types of Ecosystem

Types of Ecosystem: An ecosystem is a community of living and nonliving things that interact with each other in the physical environment.

Eco – region of space where organism lives.

System – formed by interacting organism.

It is a life supporting system.

Simply, we can say that an ecosystem is a group of living organism or biotic (plant, animal, insects) living together in a particular environment and interacting with non living component or abiotic (soil, water, air etc.)in the same in environment.

Types of Ecosystem

To maintain the balance, all the parts of ecosystem works together, A balanced ecosystem has lots of species and less damaged by human interaction, climatic factors and natural disaster.

Every species has their important role in the ecosystem and helps to keep the ecosystem healthy and balanced.

Components of Ecosystem

1. Abiotic components
  • physical factor
  • Inorganic substance
  • Organic substance
2. Biotic components
  • producer
  • consumer
  • decomposer

Types of Ecosystem

All ‘types of ecosystem‘ fall into one of two categories.

Terrestrial Ecosystem (land based ecosystem).

Aquatic Ecosystem (water based ecosystem).

The major types of ecosystem are :-

1. Freshwater Ecosystem

2. Marine Ecosystem

3. Forest Ecosystem

4. Grassland Ecosystem

5. Tundra Ecosystem

6. Desert Ecosystem

7. Mountain Ecosystem

1. Freshwater Ecosystem

Freshwater ecosystem are those types of ecosystem that are contained to freshwater. Freshwater ecosystem mainly included fish, grasses, insects, algae, plankton and underwater plants.

The freshwater ecosystem covers only 0.8 % of Earth’s surface that contain 0.009 % of total water.

There are three kinds of freshwater ecosystem :-

Lentic – slow moving or stop water like Ponds, lakes, pools etc.

Lotic – fast moving water like a rivers, streams etc.

Wetlands – the place where soil and water saturated for some lengthy period of time.

2. Marine Ecosystem

It is the aquatic ecosystem and it is bigger than freshwater ecosystem. It covers round 71% of Earth’s surface the water of marine water is salt dissolved and high amount of minerals.

Marine ecosystem includes many kinds of organism like the brown algae, Coral, Sharks, dinoflagellates etc.

There are two kinds of marine ecosystem :-

Ocean ecosystem – There are five Ocean ecosystem Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian ocean, Southern ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.

The Ocean ecosystem is the home to the largest known mammal.

Coral Reef – Coral reef is located in a shallow, clear portion of the sea mostly in tropical areas, these tropical areas to include the coast of East, Africa, South India, Florida, Australia, Brazil.

The largest coral reef ecosystem is Great barrier reef that is located in Australia.

3. Forest Ecosystem

Forest Ecosystem includes tropical forest, tropical rainforest, temperate forest. These forest are defined by the climatic that they face.

Forest ecosystem has an abudence of flora and hence in forest ecosystem, different types of organisms live together it means the forest ecosystem have a high density of living organism.

A single change in forest ecosystem can affect the entire balance. Forest ecosystem is one of the highest biodiversity as compared to other ecosystem.

4. Grassland Ecosystem

Grassland ecosystem are found in tropical or temperate region. They include mainly grasses, shrubs, grazing animals, insects. Here, grazing animals, herbivorous and insects are the dominant species.

Grassland ecosystem are known for the herding and grazing animals. Grassland is present in every continent with the exception of Antarctica.

There are two kinds of Grassland ecosystem :-

Savannah ecosystem – It is a tropical grassland and have large number of Predator and herbivorous.

Prairies ecosystem – It is temperate grassland have low and small shrubs, trees.

5. Tundra Ecosystem

Tundra is the one types of ecosystem which is situated near the north pole in the Arctic Circle and because of this it is the coldest and driest ecosystem of all Terrestrial ecosystem.

The word ‘Tundra’ comes from the word ‘tunturic’ which means treeless land. The largest animal that lives in Tundra ecosystem is Polar bear.

6. Desert Ecosystem

Desert Ecosystem are located in the region where annual rainfall receives less than 25 mm. About 17% of land on the Earth occupied by the desert ecosystem but due to high temperature, intense sunlight and low availability of water, the flora and fauna is not much developed in the desert ecosystem.

Camels, reptile and insects are generally found while in vegetative, shrubs, cactus, bushis etc found in desert ecosystem. Because there is hardly any standing water in the desert, animals and plants store water in their bodies to survive.

7. Mountain Ecosystem

Last “types of ecosystem” is mountain ecosystem. It includes steep elevation changes between meadows, ravines and peaks.Mountains provides a scattered but diverse array of habitat in which a large number of plants and animals can be found.

Mountain ecosystem is generally affected by climate are is stratified according to elevation. Mountain ecosystem play an important role for biological diversity especially in the tropics and warmer temperate latitudes.


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