Types of Cyclone:- Cyclones are basically storms which rotates around a strong centre due to high speed of wind and air pressure differences.
Cyclone get their energy from the warm ocean water, cyclone can be said that any rotating strong that is being around a low pressure Centre the low pressure centre also known as ‘eye’ of the storm.
A cyclone that occur in Indian ocean is referred to a cyclone but it is called Hurricanes if it occur in the Atlantic ocean and Typoons if it occur in the Pacific Ocean.
Types of Cyclone
There are many different ‘types of cyclone‘, they occur in different places like over land, over water but the common thing is they are rotating is strong around that low pressure centre.
1. Tropical Cyclone
3. Polar Cyclone
4. Midlatitude/Extratropical Cyclone
1. Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone can be defined as a rotating strong and thunderstorm that originated of a tropical or subtropical areas.
Tropical areas include North Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, Western Pacific, North Indian ocean, SouthWest Indian Ocean and Australian region. In these areas the cyclone develops within 5 and 30 degree of latitude.
Tropical cyclone are the most commonly known cyclone and people are familiar with because these are occur over the tropical ocean region.
Hurricanes and Typhoons are the tropical cyclone Hurricanes are found in the North East Pacific and Atlantic and Typhoons are found in the Northwest Pacific.
Highest wind speed in a tropical cyclone is formed at the eye wall which is a circle of strong strong storms. Here, cloud reach the highest and precipitation is the heaviest.
Tropical cyclone are categorised based on the wind speed and the damage they cause.
Category 1 :- If wind speed between 90 to 124 km per hour, (less damage cause of houses and trees).
Category 2 :- If wind is speed between 125 to 165 km per hour, (damage of houses and crops are trees).
Category 3 :- If wind speed between 165 to 224 km per hour, (extensive damage to houses, trees, vehicles and buildings).
Category 4 :- If wind speed between 225 to 280 km per hour, (power failure and causes damage to buildings, villages and cities).
Category 5 :- If wind speed more than 280 km per hour,(widespread damage).
This types of cyclone occurs due to thunderstorm in which cloud start to spin that may leads to Tornado. In the mesocyclone, the Wind rises and start rotating around a vertical axis in the same direction as low pressure system.
simply we can say that mesocyclone is a rapidly rotating air mass within a thunderstorm that gives rise to a tornado. Tornado comes from the thunderstorm cloud but all thunderstorm do not make tornadoes, to occur tornado parts of that cloud has to rotate.
Approximately there are 1700 mesocyclone experiences in a year and about 50% turns into Tornado. mesocyclone can feature strong surface winds and severe hail.
3. Polar cyclone
Polar cyclone are generally occur in polar region in winter month, mostly polar cyclone occur in Greenland, antarctic seas etc.
polar cyclone are usually 1000 to 2000 km wide in which the wind moves in a spiral counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere.
The polar cyclone are usually stronger in winter months, these cyclone really do prefer the colder weather and apart from it Polar cyclone also occur in areas that aren’t very populated, so the damage causes by polar cyclone is very minimal.
Last types of cyclone is midlatitude. It is the cyclonic Storms which occur along frontal boundaries in the middle latitude. It is also called extratropical cyclones.
These cyclones occur where sharp temperature gradient exist between the adjoining air masses, an example of midlatitude cyclone is ‘nor’ easted which occur in US east coast.
Formation of Cyclone
Cyclone forms because of cyclonic circulation in the atmosphere. Cyclones can occur at various scales from microscale to the synoptic scale.
>> Tropical cyclone usually use warm, moist and air as a fuel. Tropical cyclones forms as a result of convective activities and are warm core.
>> Mesocyclones form as warm core. Cyclones comes over the land and it can lead to a tornado waterspout is also a reason behind the formation of mesocyclone.
>> Extratropical cyclone develop as waves along weather front before stops later in their life cycle as cold core system but many intense extratropical cyclones can become warm core system whenever a warm seclusion occurs.