Precision farming is the managing variation in the field accurately to get more crops production with the use of fewer resources and reducing the cost of production.
From the very beginning of the time, people doing farming with the traditional methods like they are rubbing the soil to check soil with finger, they are using machinery and tractor which is the good thing and it is very essential for the agriculture practices but now a days there are new farming revolution triggered by the adaption of staggering of new technologies like they are using satellite, Remote Sensing, smart sensors, GPS and a range of IT application which is combined with high technology engineering.
Simply, we can say that precision farming is the method of farming which uses the information technology to ensure that the soil and crops get exactly what the crop and soil need for the proper growth and higher productivity.
Precision farming is also known as the satellite farming.
Precision farming can make a change in crop and food production facing the challenge of a rising world population and can help the farmer to achieve.
Precision farming is very helpful for the farmers and whoever involved in agriculture. They can easily decide that when to crop harvest when to do irrigation etc. because with the help of Precision farming they can get all the correct data and information related to their cultivation.
So we can also say that Precision farming can improve the time management, water management, nutrient management and produce healthy crops and with this all, they can get higher yield.
The process of Precision farming has been able by the help of GPS and GISS. There are farmer’s and researcher’s ability to locate these tools with the correct position in the agricultural field from which they can get map of spatial variability of many variables as can be measured such as nutrient content, moisture level, water content, soil fertility, crop production, nitrogen level etc.
There are also data which is collected by sensor arrays mounted on GPS equipped combine harvester. These arrays has the real-time sensor which can easily measure everything such as water status, chlorophyll level on the plant etc. along with the multispectral imagery. When these data collected, then the data is used in conjunction with satellite imagery by variable rate technology. The variable rate technology include sprayers, seeders etc.
In the Precision farming, there are also unmanned aerial cycle which has enabled in vehicles like DJI Phantom but these are inexpensive and it can be only operated by novice piolet. This type of agriculture tools and drone equipped with hyperspectral or RBG cameras so that it can capture the images of agriculture field and can collect data related to agriculture.
Precision farming has usually four stages process to observe a special variability :-
1. Data Collection
Satellite imagery and ariel or GPS in-vehicle are the some ways to get information and data about a field. These are located in a field to analyse the soil, water level, production rate, nutrient level, soil pH and some other data related to the agriculture.
There are generally two ways of Geolocation:-
1. In-vehicle GPS (it required someone to drive)
2. Areal or satellite imaginary (it does not required anyone to drive)
Variables are intra field (inside the field) variability may result from different different basis like climate condition, rainfall, soil texture, nitrogen level, crop production, disease in the field and weeds.
If a plant or crop is suffering from disease, water stress or from other things which is not in balanced. There are different factors of varieties.
After getting data and information of a field, farmers can use soil map and they can choose these two strategies to maintain the input of field.
1. Productive Strategy :- This strategy is based on the analysis of static indication such as field history, soil texture etc during the crop cycle.
2. Control Strategy :- This type of strategy get information from the static indicator during the crop cycle by sampling the weighing, biomass weighing fruits and by Remote Sensing which is generally measured the parameter, temperature of air and soil, humidity etc. areal or satellite remote sensing which is generally measure the disease of plant and biophysical parameter of plants and by in-vehicle sensor which generally measure the leaf status, stem status and it required someone to drive.
NICT (New information and Communication Technology) make the field crop management which is more easier for the farmers to achieve good production. In the precission farming, they use technologies for the agriculture like tractors, harvesters, thresher and other machines.
Goals of Precision Farming
There are mainly three goals of Precision farming :-
3. Protection of the environment.
Advantages of Precision Farming
> Improve the agriculture field
> Reduce potential environmental risk
> Obtain proper data in real time
> Monitor the plant and soil
> Provide better information and data for the management
> It save the time
> Provide better agriculture records which is essential for the sales and succession
> Machine operation adjustment the arable site.
Difference between traditional farming and precision farming
|Traditional Farming||Precision Farming|
|In the traditional farming there are few data which influence the decision prepration.||In the Precision farming there are lots of data which influence the decision preparation.|
|In the traditional farming the nutrient level and its management based on the average sample taking.||But in the Precision farming the nutrient level and its management based on the GPS and point like sample taking.|
|In the traditional farming there are some if the few machines operate the practice.||There are machine operation adjustment to the a arable site is the precision farming.|
|In the traditional farming the sowing of plant and varieties is same.||But in the Precision farming there are sowing of plant and varieties is specific.|
|More disease can be found in the traditional farming.||Less disease can be found in the Precision farming.|