Polyhouse Farming: Polyhouses are structures which are being used for the crop production at the place of conventional glass houses. Although these structures are unfavorable to the external environment, they protect the plants grown inside and help in untimely nursery and crop production.
Also, the crop produced in the Polyouse is of good quality.
There are many types of polyhouses based on the structure of the structure. Such as:
Caves or cottage designs on the mountains are more useful. For the structure, usually GI uses pipes or angle iron which are strong and durable. Temporary templates are built on the structure of bamboo, which are also cheap.
A thick ultraviolet light-resistant plastic sheet of 600-800 gauge is used for the cover. It is convenient to keep their size 30-100 square meters. There are three types of polyhouses based on convenience of construction cost and control of the environment.
- Low cast poly house or ordinary poly house: No artificial control is done by the machines in the environment.
- Medium Cast Poly House: It uses simple equipment for artificial control (for cooling or heating).
- Die Cast Poly House: It can increase the temperature, humidity, light, air circulation etc. as per requirement and take the desired crop in any season.
Benefits of Polyhouse Farming
- Polyhouse is very beneficial for the farmers, those who prefer organic farming.
- The plants are grown with controlled temperature so there is less chances of damage or loss of crops.
- Crops can grow throughout the year and will not have to wait for any specific season.
- Less pests and insects in a polyhouse.
- External climate will not have bad impact on the crops growth.
- Quality of products are good in polyhouse.
- Proper drainage and aeration in polyhouse.
- Propagation of ornamental crops can be done easily in the polyhouse.
- Polyhouse provide the favourable environmental condition to the plants.
- It also increases the production.
Choice of Vegetables in Polyhouse Farming
The same vegetables are suitable for production in polyhouses, which have high demand in the market and can be sold at a good price. In mountainous areas winter crops like peas, cabbage, cauliflower, frogs, capsicum, tomatoes, chillies, radish, spinach etc. and in the summer and rainy season, cauliflower, roasted beans, brinjal, chilli, cauliflower and gourd varieties can be taken.
Selection of crops may vary slightly depending on the height of the field. To prevent the loss of rain, early cauliflower, tomato, chilli etc. can also be planted in a poly house. Likewise, vegetable varieties tomato, brinjal, chilli, capsicum can also be prepared in poly house in January to take early action in summer.
Tomatoes: Common varieties- Pant T-3, Pusa Gaurav Sanchar varieties- Rupali, Navin, MTH-15, Avinash-2, Manisha, Nutan
Brinjal: Common varieties- Pant Emperor, Pant Rituraj, Pusa, Best Hybrid varieties- Pantha hybrid brinjal-1, Pusa Hybrid-5, Pusa Hybrid-6, Pusa Hybrid-9
Capsicum: Common varieties- California vendors, Yolovaners, bullnows, Chinese Giant hybrids – India, Indira, Lario, Diamond, Greengold, DARL-202
Chillies: Panti C-1, Pusa Jwala, Pusa Sadabahar, Punjab Sugar, Agni
Peas: Archil, Pant Sabely Pea-3, Pusa Pragtii, VL Pea-7
FrenchBin: Pant Anupama, Pant Bean-2, VL Dwarf Vanu-1, Pusa Parvati, Contender
Bhindi: Parbhani Revolution, Punjab-7, Arka, Anamika
Cucumber: Common varieties- Pinecet, Japanese clove green, flower shubhangi hybrids varieties- Pant hybrid cucumber, Priya DARL-101, US-6125, Malani
Gourd: Common varieties- Pusa Navin, Kalyanpura green long hybrid varieties- Pant hybrid gourd 1 and 2, Pusa hybrid-1
Karela: Pant Karela-1, Kalyanpur Baramasi, Pusa Two-Seasonal
Agricultural Activities and Care
Vegetables grown within the polyhouse have to do all the farming practices which they adopt in the open field.
Increasing the number of plants in the per unit area, more production can be taken from the bale crops by proper roofing and training of plants.
Proper air circulation management is essential in the ordinary polyhouse in the day.
Polyhouse Farming in The Mountainous Region
Such hilly areas where the cold is more and the wet and adverse conditions are also there. It is not possible to grow vegetables in open conditions. In addition, more crop losses occur in the rainy season. For these places, crop production is very beneficial in ‘polyhouse and greenhouse’ and farmers can earn more profit. Various vegetables such as tomato, capsicum, cucumber, cabbage, chilli, gourd etc. can be successfully grown in the polyhouse.
Tomatoes: Lower mountainous regions (in the valleys) in October. In the middle and high mountain areas in August.
Capsicum: Lower mountainous region (in valleys) August-September. Middle and high mountain areas in March-August.
Cucumber: Lower mountainous region (in the valleys) October. In the middle and high mountain areas in February-August.
Cultivation Practices in Polyhouse
- To plant tomato, plough about 15 cm from the ground, inside the polyhouse.
- The raised rails should be built.
- The size of these beds is 1.0 meters wide and 0.15 meters high and the length can be kept as per requirement.
- The distance of the plant from the plant is 50 cm and line length from line 60 cm can be kept.
- There should be two lines in a row.
- The distance between one to the other is 70 cm.
- The trenches are flat so that there is easy in irrigation.
- After preparing, make a proportion of formoline of 0.2 percent (2 ml) and it should be sprayed.
- Close the Poly House for one day. This spraying plant should be done approximately 20 days before planting. By this, diseases related to fungi are prevented.
- For tomato crop, add 35 tonnes of dung roe per hectare and 150: 100: 80 kg NPK at the time of preparation of the field. Make chemical fertilizers by making three parts in the entire crop circle. According to the amount of the above mixture, about 15 grams per plant, before each transplant, give it to each trash. After 20 days of transplanting, 20 gm per plant and 50-50 days after reaping the crop again 10 grams per plant should be properly cured.
Sowing and Planting Distance
Tomato (A) – 60×50 cm (If not planting the cultivation branches on plants using stems) (b) – 50×15-20 cm (Only the main stems of each plant on the tools with rope). Spinach – 15x50cm. Cucumber – 100 times 50 cm.
Fertilizer – Each year, the measurable meth of 3 kg cow dung mixed in the soil. In addition, in the above crops, give 12-15 grams of Nitrogen, 6-9 grams of phosphorus and 6-9 grams of potash rectum in the field.
Temperature – Window poles are kept closed at night during the freezing time in the ordinary poly house, but in the summer, there is a need to keep the night open to allow heat to rise.