Organic farming in India is very old and traditional. It being followed from ancient time. Organic farming is the method of farming without the use of chemicals.
It primary aimed to cultivating the land and increasing crop production in such a way that soil keep alive and in good health by the use of organic waste. Organic waste maybe crop residues, farm waste cow dung, food wastes, aquatic wastes etc and other biological materials like beneficial microbes (earthworms) to make more nutritient to crops so that production rate increased in an eco-friendly pollution free environment.
Organic Farming in India
The first aim of organic farming is to make soil in good health through the use of biological waste, organic manure and bio fertilizers. By the use of organic manure, crop production is good and healthy along with pollution free environment. Organic farming is also called ‘green farming’.
what is organic farming?
Organic farming is the method of farming that avoid the use of chemicals or any other harmful inputs like fertilizers, pesticides, hormones or artificial growth promoter etc. and relying on farming techniques like crop rotation, organic waste (plant, animal, food residues) farm manure for the plant protection and nutrition and utilization so that we can get the good quality produce and maintain soil fertility.
In India, there is lots of potential in the field of organic farming. Mostly as a small scale farmers agriculture system now a days there is people highly getting interested towards the organic farming in India. In India, Sikkim and Uttarakhand is the two states which is completely doing organic farming and they are called organic farming state in India.
Organic farming is tends to reduce cost also as organic farming remove the extra cost of chemical fertilizers used in the farming in agriculture field. With the help of organic farming it gives result in clean and a very good quality of fruits and vegetable products. Organic farming seems to a good scope in the future in Indian agriculture.
Characteristics of Organic Farming
1.) It maintain the level of organic matter.
2.) Increase the biological activity in the soil.
3.) provide the nutrients through the microbial action.
4.) Using legumes to fullfill the nitrogen requirement to the soil.
5.) Recycling organic matter like plant Residue and manures.
6.) Managing disease pest and weeds through the use of natural Predator, organic manure, crop rotation etc.
7.) It protect the long-term soil fertility in the agricultural field by controlling the organic matter level increase the soil biological activity.
8.) It provides crop nutrients by using reatively insoluble nutrient sources, made available to the crops by the action of soil microorganisms.
9.) It do not destroy field nutritional level as compared to the chemical farming.
Why organic farming in India
Why organic farming is important in India and has been become popular gradually in India. It is just because of this reasons :-
1.) In India, there is organic manure such as cow dung and tree wastes, leaves waste, human and animal waste are easily available in the rural areas and because of this agriculture based organic farming instead of chemical farming has been given more priority.
Organic farming has low investment as compared to the chemical farming which is high investment.
2.) If we use chemical fertilizers continuously, it get depleted the soil as well as the quality of crops, fruits, vegetable and due to which Indian agriculture has become emphasized on organic farming now a days.
Because it maintain the fertility of soil and provide us good quality of fruits, cerials, pulses, vegetable which is good for the health.
3.) Organic farming is eco friendly and do not cause any pollution in the field or in environment.
4.) Organic based product have more customer because of its freshness, nutritional value and chemical free characteristics.
Because in today’s time Indian agriculture market improved and commercialization based farming has been started by which Indian agriculture market become more competitive and qualitive and customers wants more fresh and nutrition value agricultural Products.
Classification of Organic farming
organic farming is classified into three categories and these are :-
1. Pure Organic Farming
Pure organic farming is the method of farming by the application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides that has been fully replaced by organic Fertilizer and biopesticides.
2. Integrated Green Revolution Farming
Integrated green revolution farming is the method of farming in which the yield production has been increasing by the using of hybrid varieties of seeds, sufficient irrigation and skilled farmers involvement and the minimum damage to the environment and the health of human beings.
There are two management comes under this organic farming, first one is integrated nutrient management (INM) and another one is integrated pest management (IPM).
3. Integrated Farming System
Integrated farming system is completely depends upon the local and natural resources such as recycling of agricultural waste, plant leaves, plant residues, food waste etc. by the use of this agricultural waste, quality of produce improves without disturbing the ecosystem and environment.
Farmers are adopting organic farming method and getting more benefit from the organic farming. They are getting more organic and natural produce the safe and healthier food. It is safe for the people and for the environment.
India has the highest number of farmers globally who involved in organic farming but farmers are still struggling
India has the highest number of farmers globally who involved in organic farming but most of the farmers are still struggling because of poor policy measures, rising inputs cost and limited market. These are affecting the growth of “organic farming in India“.
India has the 30% of organic farmers in the world but it is sad that India accounts only 2.59% of total organic cultivation area according to the world of organic agriculture 2018 report.
Organic farming is still struggling and yet to taste the success in India
Sikkim became the first organic farming state in India but problems are evident even in Sikkim. A survey by Delhi-based Centre for science and environment shows that transition of organic farming of state is yet to become success.
This survey found that the phasing out of chemical fertilizers was not complemented in Sikkim and increase in the availability of access to organic manure. There is also a complaint related to low productivity during the transition from conventional chemical farming to organic farming in India.
To ensure marketing of organic produces like fruits, vegetables, cerials, pulses, spices etc connecting farmers to the local and global market chain is very important, but a new ICRIER study found that supply chain in Indian marketing is undeveloped and because of this the small farmers located in hilly area and tribal belts face the difficulties to access the market.
In India there is population increasing rapidly day by day and supply of food decreasing and to provide food there is using of artificial growth regulators and excess use of fertilizers has been increasing and it causes issues in the human’s health and in environment.
The benefit of ‘Green revolution’ created by Dr. MS Swaminathan have now reached in the place where it become necessary to diverse alternated techniques, the need of the natural balance is very important and organic farming can balance these problems.