What is modern agriculture?
Agriculture is such innovation style and agricultural practice in which the knowledge of modern agriculture, along with indigenous knowledge and the development of important agricultural practices such as farm preparation, field selection, weed control, plant protection, post harvest management, harvesting etc. use is called modern agriculture. This kind of farming is optimizing resources, thereby increasing the efficiency and productivity of the farmers.
Poly house or green house is proven to be a modern way for farmers under modern agriculture. The Israel technology based Poly House Bundi district has started coming to the farmers. Farmers are getting more production in low cost and less space.
These are the some farming systems and methods of modern agriculture
Drip system :- It is the advanced method of irrigation, which is used to save the sufficient irrigation water. This method can be adopted for most crops, depending on the type of soil, farm, the sources of water and the efficiency of the farmer.
Irrigation efficiency of the drip method is about 80-90% . With the increase in the yield of crops, this method is used to ensure high quality of yield, efficient utilization of chemicals and nutrients, reduction in irrigation water, reduction of weeds.
The use of this method is increasing day by day. Drip irrigation technology will undoubtedly prove to be very effective in reducing the amount of water resources and day-to-day water uses and environmental problems.
Irrigation techniques are most suitable for successfully cultivating commercial crops in the areas where it is expensive to make land and difficult or impossible. The drip apparatus is a more frequent irrigation system in which the water is given around the core areas of the crop.
Through drip irrigation the plant can be burnt as per the requirement. By saving drip irrigation up to 30-40% of the fertilizer, saving upto 70% of water can increase the yield by 100%.
Vertical farming :- It is the method of producing, developing the food and medicine in vertically stacked layers. vertically designed surface or structure like skyscraper, warehouse, or shipping container). Vertical farming maintained the environment agriculture technology.
In this technology, all the environmental factors can be maintained. Veetical farming use the artificial climatic control like light, humidity, temperature, etc.
Precision farming :- It is the managing variation in the field accurately to get more crops production with the use of fewer resources and reducing the cost of production.
From the very beginning of the time, people doing farming with the traditional methods like they are rubbing the soil to check soil with finger, they are using machinery and tractor which is the good thing and it is very essential for the agriculture practices but now a days there are new farming revolution triggered by the adaption of staggering of new technologies like they are using satellite, Remote Sensing, smart sensors, GPS and a range of IT application which is combined with high technology engineering.
Sprinkler irrigation :- This method is similar to rainfall. The system consists of sprinkler heads. Which are mounted on risers in lateral line taken from main line and this is further connected to a pumping unit.
35 to 45% of water is conserved from this method. It is very costly system which requires continuous maintenance and high skill to operate.
Energy requirement of sprinkler irrigation is high. Sprinkler methods of irrigation is highly suitable for orchard crops and vegetables crops.
In this method, water is applied to the root area as in the case of furrow method. This system is introduced for water saving which enables farmers to irrigate more area with the same amount of water supply.
Farm machinery and power :- Diesel engine, electric motor, tractor and power tiller are the major power sources for field operations in agriculture. Human and animals power contributed about 60% of the total farm machinery and power in the year 1971-72, and mechanical and electrical, both together contributed balance 35%. In 2005-06, the contribution from animate power(human and animal power) reduced to 14%, and the share of mechanical and electrical power increased to 86%.
EIectro farm machinery and power :- With increased cropping intensity, farmers have supplemented animate power with tractors, power tillers, diesel engines and electric motors. The tractors in India were introduced through importation. The production of tractors locally (assembly of CKD units) was started in 1961-62 with 880 numbers.
Government of India made it must that a tractor to be manufactured should be tested in laboratory and field conditions while approving foreign collaboration.
To improve the quality of tractors, the Government of India fixed norms of specific fuel consumption, noise, Vibration, exhaust emission levels, ergonomics and safety measures. The Indian Government has also allowed other countries companies to manufacture tractors for increasing farm machinery and power. There were only 8,636 imported tractors in the year 1951. More than 347,000 tractors are manufactured every year by 14 leading manufacture companies in 2007-08. The total estimated number is 3.82 million (2005-06) contributing 99.67 MkW.
Its impact on environment
Impact of modern agriculture on the environment
As we know, modern agriculture has not only increased the production of food and the production of biofuels but simultaneously also enhances our environmental problems. The hybrid seeds and abundant varieties of diversity of this farming method In irrigation water, fertilizers and pesticides are used. How modern agriculture impacts the environment is discussed below:
The action of removal of land particles from their original place and collecting at the second place is called erosion or soil erosion. Due to excessive water supply in modern agriculture, fertile soil is removed from the farm. Due to which the nutrients of soil begin to subside, and due to lack of soil fertility, productivity decreases. It also increases global warming due to excessive water supply due to water bodies silt, soil carbon emitted in the atmosphere.
Ground water pollution
Land-water is one of the important sources for irrigation. The use of excessive nitrogen fertilizer in modern farming promotes the level of nitrate in the soil, which contaminates soil and water. If nitrate levels exceed 25 mg / L in ground water then there may be severe illness such as Blue Baby Syndrome, which mostly affects the health of babies.
Hydration and salinity
Proper management of drainage is very important for the farmers, but farmers start supplying excessive water to increase their productivity, due to which waterlogging is increased which increases the salinity of soil and soil productivity decreases.
When any reservoir or water source is enriched with artificial or non-synthetic substances like nitrates and phosphate, then called Eutrophication. Because of this enrichment, the biomass becomes excessive in the water, which reduces the amount of oxygen in the water.
Extreme use of pesticides
Many pesticides are used in modern agriculture to destroy pesticides and increase crop production. As such, arsenic, sulfur, lead and mercury were used to kill pests first. Later on, the insecticide Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT) was used but it also destroyed the beneficial insect with harmful insect.
These insecticides are biodegradable, which are associated in human food chain which is very harmful to human health. Therefore, today’s emphasis is on the use of organic manure for agriculture.