Hydrological Cycle

The processes of hydrological cycle occur in different the ways. Flowing on underground and ground surface and activating in non-depletion in solid state in the snow-bound areas. Water serves as the main factor in weathering, erosion and the physical and chemical erosion.

Water is a main resource on the Earth, which places a prominent place in all natural resources. Water joins the creation of nature and provides basis for the entire biosphere. Its distribution is found in many different places on the Earth.

Hydrological Cycle

Its appearance keeps changing according to situation and climate. Gaseous condition is found in the form of water vapor in the atmosphere, in the form of microscopic particles in solid state and in the form of water droplets in fluid state.

All these conditions changes due to changes in temperature and affect seasonal patterns. The biological community needs regular supply of water on earth. This water should be balanced quality which is mainly obtained from rivers, lakes and the underground aquifers.

In the hydrological cycle, regular cyclic arrangements are included on water hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere. Water reaches the atmosphere in the oceans, lakes, rivers, site parts (soil moisture), plants etc. by evaporation and transpiration.

Process of Hydrological Cycle

In the process of hydrological cycle its various levels or sequences have an effect on its mobility, such that the moisture atmosphere that is received can be recovered in any form, such as water, oceans, snow, etc., in the form of water or sea.

Therefore, due to these changes in state and position, obstacles arise in the process of hydrological cycle. Due to the energy (temperature) obtained from Sun, the water of the oceans enters the atmosphere by forming water vapor.

Wind from the oceans to the site moves the water vapor and transfers from one place to another. After this, when the condensation of this water vapor occurs then there is rain on the ground surface and this water which gets from the rain to the surface flows on the surface of the river, and eventually enters the oceans.

This water speed moves from solar energy. In this way, some part of this water obtained from rain becomes depleted due to transpiration by the vegetation, and some water reaches the vaporization again in the water from the barbers, ponds, lakes etc.

Some parts of the water conservation on the ground are buried under the ground surface. This water reservoir of soil is called soil water storage. Which keeps depletions through plants through transpiration.

Some water comes back to the surface as sources and some parts are transmitted down from the soil water storage. This water body, which is stored under the ground, is called geothermal water.

Methods of Hydrological Cycle

(1) Transpiration:

Plantation is the process of transpiration. It is more in some plants and less in some plants. This action is edited by the apes located in the leaves. In this process, there is a considerable amount of loss of geophysic waste.

The loss of water through this medium is mainly in the day. The ability of transpiration in different plants varies. It has an important contribution in the mechanism of hydrological cycle.

Transpiration is less because of the low intensity of vegetation in the desert areas, but the process of the aqueous cycles of the hydrological cycles remains intensified in the intensive vegetation cover areas.

(2) Endoscopy:

Rain water reaches within the ground. Rate of water flutter is affected by the organization and structure of the soil. It is called the surface movement of the water to absorb the water. Some part of the water received from the rain flows in accordance with the shield. It is called superficial flux.

The nature of the soil directly affects the ultimate vibrations. In the smooth soil, the rate of pulsativeness is low, but the sand is rapid in soil. In the same way, the more auspicious the land becomes, the more intense vibrations will be intensified.

(3) Rain:

It is often seen that the speed of the rain is sometimes ever more intense. To measure this intensity, measure the rate of intensity of precipitation rate. In places where rainfall winds first enter, the rainfall is likely to be much faster.

Rainfall is high in more rainfall areas. Whereas sometimes there is very high rainfall in areas with low rainfall. Rapid rainfall leads to less profit and loss. The water obtained from the strong rain does not cause the ultimate vibration at the same speed, which affects the underground hydrological cycles.

Based on the total quantity of rainfall, vegetation and crops develop in the said area. In addition to the amount of rainfall, the number of days of rain is also important. If the total rainfall received at some place is distributed over most of the year, then the aqueous cycle needs to be balanced.

Due to low rainfall, there are floods due to excessive rainfall. Thus, the nature of rain affects the action method of aqueous cycles. With rain, snow, dew, tushar etc also control the water.

(4) Evaporation:

Evaporation is the major layer of water cycle process. Through this process the ocean water reaches the atmosphere. Evaporation of water from the oceans is more than the continents. The main reason for this is availability of water.

According to an estimate 4,55,000 cubic kilometers of water from the oceans reaches the atmosphere by evaporation every year. From the water bodies located on the ground surface, they reach the atmosphere of 62,000 cubic kilometers. When it is evaporated 98,000 cubic kilometers of water, it gets absorbed in the atmosphere.

Water vapor can absorb more than a certain amount of air. When the relative humidity is 100 percent, the air is called saturated. In the process of water cycle, only 5 percent water is used in the water.

(5) surface stream:

The surface stream is the verb method of the water cycle, in which rain water flows according to the shield without reaching the ground with leakage. The speed of the conductor depends on the gradient. If there is fast shield then the flow will increase and the shield will be reduced, the flow is slow and the ultimate vibrle is high.

In the sharp shield, the flutter is reduced. Underneath the flow occurs when its soil leaks inside. This runoff is accompanied by large moons. Its speed is very low. The surface stream is also harmful. The reason for this flow is the erosion of land.

Sub-Cycle of hydrological

The major sub-cycles of aquatic cycle are being described below:

(1) Small sub-cycle:

The short sub-cycle is the sub-cycle to be completed in the shortest period.

It has two types:

(i) Small sub-cycle:

After the water evaporates from the oceans, after condensation in the form of vapor, it gets frozen again and again into the oceans, i.e. in the oceans, coming into the oceans again in the oceans, provides complete sub-cycle.

(ii) Very short cycle:

When the rain is there, the vaporization of rain drops in the atmosphere remains in vain. By evaporation, the water then condenses due to the temperature in the atmosphere and falls on the surface by rain and completes the very short sub-cycle.

(2) Long conduction cycle:

Due to taking longer it is called long cycle.

It can also be divided into two types:

(i) Long term cycle:

The water which is flowing on the surface after the rain. Some part of it gets pulsed into the ground which is absorbed by the roots of the vegetation, by transpiration and vaporization from the vegetation, this water then reaches the atmosphere and returns to the ground surface again by rain.

This kind of sub-cycle takes the most time. The ideal water cycle is found on the oceans. Even before reaching the oceans of water from the rivers, lakes and other low-water storage places on the terrestrial part, some part is vaporized and the aquatic subsurface completes.

(ii) Long conduction cycle:

When rainwater falls on the ground surface, some part of this water immediately evaporates from the surface (water flowing through water) and reaches the atmosphere and the long water cycle is completed by friction again on the ground surface.

Problems of Hydrological Cycle

  1. Due to increasing industrialization, the amount of dust in the atmosphere is changing because the particles disseminated in the factories function as the humidifier nucleus for the production of rain drops. In this way solid particulate pollution effect in the atmosphere affects the formation of clouds, amount of rainfall and replication.
  2. As the economic activities of human beings are increasing. In the same way, his technology is becoming more intense. It is clear from this that man has greatly influenced the water cycle. Humans have artificially changed the atmospheric composition.
  3. Humans have influenced the water cycle by dismantling the ecological balance of nature by forest destruction.
  4. The action of cloud seeding also affects the aquatic cycles.
  5. Changes in the intermittent transition of water also have an effect on the water cycle. Deforestation is decreased, whereas irrigation plantation dam increases the construction of damaged water reservoirs and evaporation also increases. Humans influence the water flowing on the surface of the aqueous cycle in many ways.
  6. Many environmental impacts of urbanization are being reflected, such as air pollution, forest destruction for urban spread etc. Due to these, water cycle is negligible.
  7. Many types of pollution arising on the earth’s surface are also interrupting the aquatic cycles. Humans involved in economic races have disarmed nature by doing mining work in a scientific way, which has also hampered the cycle of water cycle.


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