Green Revolution is meant to increase the food production faster by using the latest techniques and facilities. Under this, agricultural production increased rapidly after 1966 by using improved seeds and fertilizers, pesticides and advanced agricultural machines.
This increase in agricultural production is known as Green Revolution.
The green revolution can be called the advanced program of seeds, the use of chemical fertilizers, water and electricity for irrigation, pesticide and so on. Agriculture scientists have been specially contributing to this.
They discovered such sick seeds, which can produce many times in comparison to earlier. The research of the treatment of various types of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and plant diseases has also contributed a lot in this direction.
This has led to a huge increase in the yield per acre in our country.
The use of tools and machinery used in farming has also helped the Green Revolution. As a result of this revolution, overall production of wheat has increased in the country. The yield of per acre is also increased by chemical fertilizers and advanced varieties of seeds.
Government has provided seeds to the farmers on cheap prices and provide loans for machines. Also, the sources of irrigation were developed. Indian Agricultural Research Council has been encouraged for the development of agricultural science and technology.
In the Green Revolution of India, Norman Borlaug and Agriculture scientists M.S. Swaminathan have a special contribution. Normann Borlag has made special contribution in exploring advanced varieties of wheat to increase agricultural production.
At the time of Green Revolution, Dr. Swaminathan was the Director of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, and under his supervision advanced seeds and other techniques were made available to the farmers. In India, an agricultural award is also given in their name. Green Revolution has given the farming a business shape.
The main elements of the Green Revolution
• Program of high yielding crops – This program was implemented in 1970-71 on 6 crops including paddy, wheat, maize, jowar millet and poultry.
• Mexican varieties – Mexican varieties of wheat, rice sugar and some Indian grown varieties have been used. In this program, pesticide drugs and chemical fertilizers were also used along with advanced varieties.
• Multi Crop Program – Crops are sown in which a number of crops can be sown more than once in a year and the production can be increased.
• Adequate arrangement of irrigation – It was necessary which could only be accomplished by the big bowl. Under this program, emphasis was laid on tube wells, small canals, ponds, wells, water harvesting and tubewells.
• Chemical fertilizers – The use of chemical fertilizers such as urea, potash, have increased sharply to increase agricultural yield.
• Enhanced Seed – The use of advanced varieties of seeds has been promoted to promote higher yield and agricultural quality.
• Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization – Agriculture of new technology for agricultural development in the Green Revolution The use of equipment was encouraged to enable all work from sowing till harvest to success in a short time.
• The National Conservation Program – Its Inclusion The work of spraying of medicines on the past lands and crops started. In the years that grasshoppers come, in those years, they are destroyed in land or in the sky by running a campaign to destroy locusts. To prevent crops from being damaged and to increase productivity.
• Agriculture education and research – To promote agricultural production, expansion of agricultural education and research programs were implemented.
• Establishment of different institutions – Many organizations were set up to efficiently manage agricultural development schemes, such as National Seed Corporation, Fertilizer Corporation, NABARD etc.
• Agricultural Value Commission – Agricultural Price Commission was set up to give a guarantee of fair value to the farmers.
• Insurance of crops – Provision of seeds of agricultural crops for protection from natural outbreak has been made.
Green Revolution Results
Positive results of Green Revolution
1) Due to the rapid increase in the production of foodgrains, India received self-sufficiency in the food grains sector. Now there is no need for India to depend on foreign countries for food grains.
2) Due to the Green Revolution, interest was created to adopt new techniques of agriculture in the farmers. Because of this, the prospects of increasing agricultural production have increased in the future.
3) The effect of Green Revolution was high in some areas of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, West Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra, so here the level of life of the farmers increased. With the expansion of agricultural operations, new employment opportunities have also been provided to agricultural laborers.
4) Green Revolution also had positive impact on industrial development. Agriculture-based industries have grown rapidly. Simultaneously the agricultural machinery industry also grew.
5) Employment for the poor workers – Increased expansion and production in agriculture also increased their employment.
6) In the production of multipurpose and commercial crops, the need for more workers was fulfilled by landless workers, thereby improving their economic condition.
7) Production of advanced varieties – Increased production of improved variety of crops by the use of improved seed pesticides and chemical fertilizers.
Negative results of Green Revolution
• Regional imbalance
It is noteworthy that the Green Revolution was centered in certain parts of the country like Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, so these areas were rapidly developed but other areas of the country were deprived of green revolution.
Again, green revolution was mainly given special emphasis on the production of wheat and special attention was not given on the rice producing areas. As a result, there has been a situation of imbalance about agricultural development in different areas of the country which can still be seen today.
• Higher benefits to rich farmers
The success of Green Revolution was dependent on increasing agricultural production through modern measures, increasing the investment in agriculture.
Thus, its full advantage was raised by big and rich farmers, whereas in the green revolution areas poor farmers were deprived of its benefits. Therefore, in these areas, the economic inequality increased among rich farmers and poor farmers.
• Decrease in Fertility of Agricultural Land
Under the Green Revolution, efforts were made to grow more and more crops on land by using more advanced technologies and fertilizers. For this, when chemical fertilizers were used in large quantities, the fertilizer capacity of the land was reduced. Due to the increased use of irrigation, the amount of salt in the land has also increased.
• Difference in the productivity
Due to the difference in the productivity of irrigated and uninfected areas, the tension between the farmers has increased. At the same time, the main advantage of the Green Revolution has been found only to the big farmers, the small farmers have been deprived of it.
• Not all crops can be benefited
Not all crops can be benefited from this. The main benefit is found only in the context of increasing the productivity of wheat and rice. There is not enough increase in terms of increasing productivity of pulses, oilseeds and cash crops.
• Many ecological problems have arisen in the areas of Green Revolution, the problem of salinity and alkalinity in soil, problem of nitrogenous toxicity, decrease in ground water level, which can ultimately have negative impact on the productivity of agriculture.
Government’s efforts to streamline the revolution
The government is constantly trying to make the Green Revolution a success. Loan by the nationalized banks and cooperative banks has been made to farmers on low interest. Arrangements have been made to make all the items coming in the works of agriculture to be used simultaneously to farmers at concessional prices. They are being motivated to adopt these measures through wide publicity among the farmers.
In the construction of tube wells, the government gives a large amount of money as a grant and in the form of the remaining debt. Being in power in the country – even on fixed basis at the time of irrigation, electricity is provided on primary basis and at cheaper rates. Arrangements have been made to provide loans and grants for purchase of machines and tools. Even so far, we have not got complete success.