Forest Resources: Forest covers 23% of the total land area in the India. The word forest is comes from the word foris which means outside.
Forest is the natural and self sustaining community, which is categorised by vertical structure by the presence of vegetative is a large amount and generally is single steamed, woody plant.
The forest can be exist in many different areas under a wide range of conditions like tropical, subtropical etc. but all the true forest shares physical characteristics.
We all know that forest is a natural resources so no forest is statics in time. It grow naturally that is because forest resources respond to outside influences.
Most of the forests are in the state of constant flux. Forest depend upon the numbers of factors within which the forest community is exist such factors temperature, rainfall, winds, glaciation, animal activity, human activity, flooding forest.
Forest is the collection of flora and funa therefore the present status of any forest indeed of any natural resources reflects that what has gone on before.
There are so many benefits from the forest :-
1. Fuel Wood
Forests provide fuel wood which is used as a source of energy for cooking purpose and for keeping warm from the very long time in the indian history.
A large number of timber is produced from the forest wood is used for making tools handles, furniture, railways sleepers, matches, papers, boat etc.
Bamboo are used for making matting, flooring, basket and ropes, raft etc.
Fruits, leaves, roots and other important medicinal plant is obtained from the forest. meats of forest animal form the food of forest tribes.
Moses, ferns, insects, birds reptiles, mammals, and other microorganisms are provided habitat by forest.
Wood and bamboo pulp from the forests are used for manufacturing paper, news print, statinary, packing etc.
Wood and bamboo from the forest is used for manufacture of rayon like artificial Silk fibres etc.
8. Forest Product
Gums, drugs, spices, insecticides. wax honey etc are the some forest product that is provided by the forest.
9. Reduction of pollution from atmosphere
By the using of carbon dioxide and giving off oxygen during the process of photosynthesis, forest help in reducing the pollution of atmosphere.
10. Soil improvement
The fertility of the soil increases due to the humus which is formed by the decaying of forest. There are so many types of plants grown in the forest which is helped in the improvement of soil quality and fertility.
11. Control of soil erosion
The thick layer of humus act like the big sponge and socks rain water preventing run off thereby the soil erosion from the water is decreases and the roots of various plant help to stay soil at one place.
Problem in the forest
Deforestation is the major problem in the forest. The difforestation is done for the industries purpose in large amount and the are major problem has been started like Global warming and balance in ecosystem etc.
Major causes of deforestation –
Extension of cultivation in hill slopes
Expansion of agriculture
There are so many policies are running through the Govt of India to reduce the deforestation and improving the forest statistics.
The forest area in India differ from state to state. MP stand at the top in the total forest land in India and after that Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha. In India about 15% total forest is covered by the north eastern state. Among all the Indian state, Haryana has least forest cover it is followed by Punjab, Bihar, Sikkim, Tripura etc.
Forest resources in india
Forest is the significant rural industry and a major environmental resources in India. India is one of the world’s richest forest country along with the Russia, Brazil, America, United State, China, Indonesia, etc.
The forest of India covers grew at the rate of 0.20% annually over 1990-2000, and has grown at the rate of 0.7% per year in 2000-2010.
Forest area in India is more than just about wood and fuel. India has a thriving non wood forest product in dusty which produces production is collected locally and about 50% of the total revenue from the forest industry in India is from non wood forest product
Forest Resources in India during 1947 to 1990
The government nationalized the forests which were earlier with the people in 1952. India also nationalized the most of the forest wood industry and non wood forest products industry. After sometimes, many rules, regulations and policies were comes by Indian government .
The Conservation Act was passed in 1980, which is stipulated that the central permission is important to practice sustainable agro-forestry in a forest area. Lack of permits was made the criminal offense.
These nationalization wave and rules intended to limit the tree cutting process, biodiversity conservation , and save wildlife. However, the intent of these rules and regulations was not matched by reality. Neither investment aimed at sustainable forestry nor knowledge is heated by people once India had nationalized and heavily regulate the forestry.
Deforestation increased, biodiversity diminished, wildlife dwindled and ecosystem also went imbalance. The rural population of India and impoverished families continued to ignore the rules and use the forests near them for sustenance.
India started the policy called National Forest Policy in 1988. This led to a programme which is known as Joint Forest Management, that is proposed that specific villages in association with the forest department will be managed specific forest block. The protection of the forests would be the responsibility of the people in particular.
Seventeen states of India participated in the Joint Forest Management by 1992, and bringing about 2 million hectares of forests under protection. The effect of this initiative has been claimed to be profitable and positive. But the growth rates trough these years have been slow.
Forest cover is defined as the total lands, more than one hectare in area, with a tree canopy density of 10%, Such lands may or may not be statutorily notified as forest area.
Very Dense Forest
Total lands, with a forest cover with canopy density more than 70%.
Moderately Dense Forest
Total lands, with a forest area cover with canopy density of about 40-70 %
Total lands, with forest area cover with canopy density of 10 to 40 %
Mangrove forest is the salt tolerant forest type which is mainly found in tropical and sub-tropical coastal area and inter tidal area.
Mangrove forest cover the area under mangrove vegetation as interpreted digitally from remote sensing data. It is the part of forest cover and also classified into three classes, that are :- very dense, moderately dense and open.
Non Forest Land
It is defined as lands without any forest cover.
All the lands, generally in and around forest areas, having bushes and poor tree and plant growth, stunted trees with canopy density less than 10%.
Land area with tree patches outside the recorded forest area exclusive of forest cover and less than the minimum mapable area of 1 hectare.
Trees Outside Forests
The trees which is grown outside the forest areas.