Extension Education: The word extension is derived from the Latin roots ‘ex’ meaning out and ‘tensio’ (tension) meaning stretching.
- Stretching out is the meaning of extension.
Education- It is the process of receiving or giving knowledge. It may be from teaching, training, discussing and direct researching.
It is the the process of giving practical base agriculture knowledge to the farmers which is useful for rural people for solving their problem.
- It is one of behavior science to bring about desirable changes in human being by applying the latest scientific and technological innovations.
- It is the bi-directional learning education, means teacher also learns from the farmers during the course of teaching to the farmers.
- The extension education involves new technique which are applicable not only to agriculture but also to veterinary and animal husbandry, home science, health family planning, dairying.
- It is an informal education .i.e out of school and college. Extension education has one type of partnership program between government, land grant colleges/universities and rural peoples.
- It is continuous education means teacher or extension worker teach regularly with practical first and after theoretical aspects are to be touched.
Agriculture extension: It is the process by which lab base agriculture knowledge (by scientists) is transferred into land base knowledge for farmers.
It is done by extension workers. These workers are usually a technically trained person in the fields of agriculture as researcher or specialist.
Difference between formal education and extension/informal education
|The teacher starts with theory first and then practical.||The teacher (extension workers) starts with practical first in which they live and work then notes are made for basic understanding.|
|It is a formal education. i.e it comes under school and college.||It is informal education. i.e out of school and college.|
|There is fixed syllabus or course of study.||There is no fixed syllabus or course of study.|
|Basically, students study the problems.||Farmers study the problems.|
|Teaching is limit under the walls of the institution.||Teaching is largely outside the walls of the institution.|
|It has all pre-planned and pre-decided programmes.||It has freedom to develop programmes, which are based on the needs and desires of the people.|
|It is rigid.||It is flexible.|
|Teacher only teaches the students.||The teacher teaches the learners as well as learns from the learners.|
|Teaching is only through instructors.||Teaching is also through local leaders.|
Remark: There is another education, which name is non formal education. It is similar to extension education, but in this type of education, student studies out of school. E.g pre-school education or education through NGO’s.
Objectives of Extension Education
The main objectives of extension education are the declaration for direction of movement. Before starting any programme, its objectives must be clearly stated, so that you have to know about final goal and how can achieve it.
Agriculture extension in our country is primarily concerned with the following main objectives.
Fundamental objective- It is the overall development of the people. i.e transfer of useful knowledge as practical application for people.
Production of desirable changes in human behavior through gaining desirable knowledge and manual skill.
General objective- Dissemination of useful and important practical information, which is related to agriculture, including improved seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, poultry, nutrition etc.
Working objective– To get feedback from the people about the latest scientific technology and improve all aspects of the the life of the rural people with the structure of the national, economic and social policies.
Principles of Extension Education
The extension work is based upon some principles. This principle is a statement of policy to guide our decision.
Some of these basic principles, which are related to agriculture extension-
Principle of interests and needs- Extension work must be occur on the basis of the needs and interests for the people. These needs and interests make differ from individual to individual, village to village and from state to state.
Principle of cultural differences- Extension work is based on the cultural background of the people. When the extension workers know the level of knowledge and skills of the people.
Improvement can only begin from the level of the people where they are.
Principle of participation- Actually, participation of people in extension programmes create self confidence and also they learn more by doing. It has been seen that people become dynamic if they are permitted to take decisions relating their own responsibility, and are helped to carry out projects in their own villages.
Principle of adaptability- People differ from one another, one group differs from another group and conditions also differ from place to place.
An extension programme should be flexible, so that necessary changes can made whenever needed, to meet the varying conditions.
Principle of grass-root organization- This means that programme should be suitable with local community so that more and more people participate.
Principle of local leadership- Extension programme is based on the full utilization of local leadership for increasing the speed of work. The selection and training of local leaders to enable them to help the people.
Principle of whole family approach- Extension work will have better chance of success if the extension workers have a whole family members i.e. men, women, youth of the family.
Principle of co-operation- Extension is a co-operative courageous work. In which rural people co-operate with their village, block and state officials to carry on a common cause.
Principle of people’s satisfaction- Satisfaction is the key to success in extension work that comes to the farmers, his wife or youngster. A satisfied customer is the best advertisement.
Principle of trained specialist- Trained specialist have to be provided at different level of extension programme who keep themselves in touch with their specific research institutes on the one hand, and extend to the extension worker in meaningful term.
Principle of evaluation and improvement- All extension programme must be evaluated at regular to know what has been achieved and what remains to be done. Evaluation should indicate gaps and step to taken for further improvement.
Scope of Extension Education
There are five areas programmes which indicate the development of rural peoples as scope-
Agriculture production- In developing countries with 50% to 70% of the population employed in agricultural production as compared to 10% to 20% in the economically advanced countries, food shortages are a common occurrence.
Marketing distribution and utilization of farm products- It is determined to a large extent whether they are produced at a profit or at a loss of money or at least of human effort.
A national program for the marketing of agricultural products is first concerned that products will be produced of a quality and in the quality which the market will absorb at the time they are needed.
Conversation and wise use of natural resources– It is a very important to every country. Agricultural extension programs in this field are directed to:-
- Informing people of the value of and need for conservation.
- Assisting people to use their own resources wisely so as to provide the best possible living for themselves and their descendants.
- Motivating people to do their part in achieving national objectives.
Management on the farm- It involves large and continuing decisions as to alternative use of resources in an effort to maximise productivity and farm income.
Farm management is an essential element in the training of farmers. A farmer, at any given time has at his disposal a certain amount of land with certain characteristics, his labor and that of his family.
Community and rural peoples development- Extension is development of individuals in their day-to-day living, development of their leaders, their communities and their village peoples. The welfare and happiness of the people with their own families, their own villages, their own country is increasing day by day.
Importance of Extension Education
Technology involvement- Due to extension, people know ‘how to teach’ and ‘what is teach’ so that the people can be encouraged to adopt new research techniques easily.
Rural development- This education is primarily for the rural development. It means that to bring necessary changes in the beliefs or views of people.
Building capacity- The basic important of this education is to empower all rural people so that farmers can increase farm yields and improve their standard level.
Learning network- These networks can take many forms, from communities of practice to arrangements that bring together farmers, extension workers and others involved in the production of agricultural goods and services. So extension makes good developing communities.
National development- Extension helps to develop the nation. This development occur according to peoples natures which given below in these four points:
i. Change in what people know – the knowledge of themselves, their society and the
ii. Change in what people can do – skills, mental and physical.
iii. Changes in what people think and feel – their attitudes towards themselves,
toward their society and toward their physical environment.
iv. Changes in what people actually do – their actions related to factors determining their own welfare.