Conventional sources of energy are directly means the energy of source which is fixed and limited in the earth such as gas, coal, petroleum etc. We can also say that the conventional energy is non renewable energy sources. The more uses of conventional energy leads to increase Greenhouse gas emission and other damage in the environment.
Out of the total conventional source of energy 28% is nuclear energy, 29% is hydro electric power energy and 29% is coal. The remaining 7% is natural gas and 7% is crude oil.
Conventional sources of energy
These sources of conventional energy are very polluted and harmful for the environment which leads to many climatic problems. Global warming is one of the most known problem in the environment which is from the conventional energy. Other than that, acid rain and climatic changes are the other problems on the earth.
Conventional sources of energy are limited eccept hydro electric power because we all know that the earth contain about 70% of water on its surface and hence it is not limited and power can generate unlimited for many years.
Classification of conventional sources of energy :-
• Commercial sources of energy and
• Non Commercial sources of energy
• Commercial sources of energy
Oil, petroleum, electricity etc. are comes under the commercial source of energy because they have a price and consumer has to pay the price to use them.
1. Coal and Lignite
Coal is the major source of conventional energy. It contains about 29% of the total conventional energy in India. Coal deposited is limited but it is very much sufficient and the lignite reserved are 3300 million tonnes at Neyveli.
The annual production of coal was 32 million tonnes in 1950-51 but in 2005-06, the annual production of oil was 343 million tonnes.
The production of lignite was 20.46 million tonnes in 2005-06. In India, the coal reserve would last about 120 years more from now. India is the fourth largest country in the world in coal production.
Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are the main state which produces the coil in large amount. It also generate the employment to many people.
2. Oil and Natural gas
Oil is the most important source of energy in India. It contains about 14% of the total conventional source of energy (both oil and natural gas, oil contains 7% while natural gas contains 7%). Oil is widely used in motors, train, plans and ships etc. It is found in the Assam, Mumbai high, and Gujarat in India.
India produces the oil in very less amount. Generally India is imported the oil from the other country. The total production of oil was 0.3 million tonnes in India in 1950-51 but now it has been increased to 32.4 millions tonnes in 2000-01 in India.
India imports about 70% of oil because the requirement of the oil has been increased now a days. Oil which is reserved in India may last about 25 to 30 years.
Natural gas has been the important source of energy from the last two decades.
The natural gas is produced in two ways :-
a It can produced with petroleum products as associated gas.
b Free gas obtained from gas field which is normally in Assam, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.
Natural gas is used as the Fertilizer and Chemical to the plants and gas based thermal power plants in India. The total production of natural gas was 31.29 billion cubic metre in 2003-04.
We all know that electricity is the most common source of conventional energy. Electricity is used in the houses and industrial purpose. Lightning, air conditioning, cooking and other electronic appliances like TV, fridge are runs with the help of electricity.
Agriculture sector consume 28.4 % of electricity, industrial sector consume 38% and 22% of electricity used for domestic purpose. The remaining electricity used for commercial purpose.
Electricity generated from the three main sources Thermal Power, Hydro electric power and Nuclear Power.
* Thermal Power is generated with the help of coal and oil at different power station. Thermal power share in total installed capacity was about 70% in 2004-05.
* Hydro electric power is produced by the conducting Dams on overflow rivers. In India, Bhakhra Nangal and Hirakud Dam are the some largest power producing project. The installed capacity of hydro electricity was 587.4 MW in 1950-51 but in 2004-05 it was in read to 19600 MV.
* Nuclear power is used uranium as fuel for the power generation. India has nuclear power plant at Tarapur (Rajasthan), Narvavra (UP) and Kalapakam (Chennai). Nuclear power plant supplies only 3% of the total installed capacity.
• Non commercial energy sources
Non commercial sources of energy includes straw, wood, dried ding etc. Generally these are used in rural areas. That total availability of fuel, wood was 50 million tonnes in India and it is not sufficient in fact, it is less than 50% of the total requirements.
Straw is a agricultural waste which is used for fuel, other than that the animal that is also used as the energy for cooking purpose. About 324 million tons are produced in animal dung and out of this about 73 millions are used as fuel for the domestic purpose.
Advantages of conventional sources of energy
1. It is abundant and affordable.
2. Conventional sources of energy are easier to use.
3. Energy Efficiency is more than non conventional source of energy.
4. Free gift of nature to some countries.
5. It is easy to access.
6. It contains high density of energy.
7. It is used by everyone and everywhere.
Disadvantages of conventional sources of energy
1. They are limited, petroleum, gas and coal are , and they will eventually runout.
2. Conventional sources of energy have bad effect on the environment.
3. They release Greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide etc. in the atmosphere, which is the cause of global warming.
4. They are costly, we have to pay amount to use them.
5. It also causes acid rain and mercury which is very harmful for the living things because the acid rain include sulphur and nitrogen oxide in higher amount.