Components of Environment

Components of Environment: Whatever we see around us is environment. It can be living or nonliving things.

The word environment is comes from the French word in ‘environ’ which means soundings. This surroundings include biotic factors and abiotic factors.

Biotic factors include human, plant, animal, microorganisms etc while abiotic factors include air, soil, water etc.

Components of environment

Environment consists of everything we see around us (trees, plant, people, lake, animals etc.) are all parts of environment.

We can say that environment is the combination of all living and nonliving things.

Environment can be defined as surroundings and conditions which directly or indirectly affects the living organisms.

Components of Environment

Environment has been classified in four main components. they are :-

1. Hydrosphere (water bodies)

2. Lithosphere (earth’s crust)

3. Atmosphere (air)

4. Biosphere (life)

1. Hydoshphere

Hydrosphere is a components of environment which include water bodies such as ponds, lakes, ocean, river, etc.

Hydrosphere is the water component on the earth surface wherever we see water bodies on the earth’s surface such as river, Glacier, ocean even in the atmosphere water vapour or water droplet present even they are also a part of Hydrosphere so everything together combined is known as Hydrosphere.

Around 71% is covered with water (97% marine water and 3% freshwater). If we see the earth from space it looks blue as the major part of Earth’s surface is covered with water on the surface of earth below the ground and surroundings.

Water exist in all three States of matter solid (ice), liquid (river, ponds, ocean) and gas (gas steam).

Hydrological Cycle

the hydrological cycle is circulation of water in the different forms solid liquid and gaseous hydrological cycle is also known as water cycle.

Mathematically it is expressed as RF = RO + ET.

there are six stages of water cycle:-





Run off


Evaporation: The process in which water changes from liquid to gas. The heat of Sun provides energy to evaporate water from the Earth’s surface.

Transportation: The movement of water particles from the ocean to overland through the atmosphere.

Condensation: It is the process of forming tiny water droplet and clouds.

Precipitation: The process of transporting water from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface.

Run off: Most of the water that return to the earth flows down hill as runoff and charge groundwater while the rest, a river flow return to the ocean

Groundwater: Groundwater can even flow upward in artesian well.

2. Lithosphere

This components of environment refer to the layer of rocky material on the earth’s surface.

Lithosphere contains soil, rocks, mountain etc. Lithosphere is divided into three layer crust, Mantle and core but the earth lithosphere is the rocky outer part.

It is made up of crust and top parts of mantle. Lithosphere consists of igneous and sedimentary rocks.

Types of lithosphere:-

Oceanic Lithosphere – This is present at the bottom of the water bodies and ocean, river, they get thick with time.

Continental Lithosphere – It is exist below the solid land. It is lighter than oceanic lithosphere.

3. Atmosphere

The Atmosphere of the Earth is the envelope which surrounds us. Atmosphere is a thin layer which contain gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen etc. It protects us from the harmful radiation of the sun.

The density of atmosphere decreases outward because the gravitational attraction of the planet, which pulls the gases and aerosol (microscopic suspended particle of Dust, H2O, smokes, chemicals) inwards.

Atmosphere of earth has been able to contain water in each of its three phases (solid, liquid,gas) that has been essential for the development of life.

The atmosphere of earth is the mixture of Nitrogen (78.08%), oxygen (20.95%), argan (0.93%) with carbon dioxide (0.04%) water (H2O), inert gases such as Helium, Neon, krypton and other constituent such as nitrogen oxides, compounds of Sulphur and compounds of ozone are found in lesser amount.

There are five layer in the atmosphere which is divided on the basis of its temperature. These includes troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.

4. Biosphere

This components of environment are also known as the life layer. Biosphere refers to all organisms on the earth and their interaction with the water and air.

It mainly consists of animal, plant, trees, microorganisms, fishes. Millions of a species of plants, animals, microorganism etc grow, feed, reproduce over long period of time the environment.

The richness of Biosphere depends upon a number of factors such as rainfall, temperature, sunlight, water etc.

Simply biosphere is life layer on the earth’s surface extending from of few kilometre into the atmosphere where birds fly to the deep ocean.


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