Biopesticides are the type of pesticides which is derived from such natural materials like animals plants bacteria and some minerals for example fungi such as beautiful sp.,spaces bacteria such as Bacillus sp., and pheromones.
Similarly baking soda and canola oil have pesticides application and are considered as “biopesticides“.
In a easy way, biopesticides are the pest management tools that are based on beneficial microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses) and beneficial nematodes.
So we can say that biopesticides are generally less toxic and eco-friendly and are non-target organisms making them desirable and sustainable tool for disease management.
It play a important role to provide pest management tool in areas where pesticides resistance and environment concerns limit the use of chemical pesticide products.
Types of Biopesticides
1. Microbial Pesticides
2. Plant Incorporated Protectants
3. Biochemical Pesticides
4. Botanical Pesticides
1. Microbial Pesticides
Microbial pesticides contain microorganism (bacteria, virus, alga, fungal) as the active ingredient.
It can control different type of pest, although each separate active ingredients is relatively specific for its target, for example there are fungi that control weeds and other fungi kill a specific insects.
They suppress pest by producing such toxin specific to the pest. Most common microbial pesticides are Bacillus thuringiensis.
- The greatest strength of microbial pesticides that their specificity as most are essentially non-toxic and non pathogenic to the animal.
- Microbial pesticides involve fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and growth regulators of microbial origin.
Some of the important microbial pesticides are-
A.) Bacillus thuringiensis
Discovered in Japan in early 20th century and become first commercial product in France. It control stem borer in ric, American bollworm in cotton it release toxins that damage the mid gut of pest.
B.) Pseudomonas fluorescens
It has ability to grow quickly in the rhizosphere.
It is a fungicides effective against soil borne disease such as root note.
D.) Agrobacterium radiobacter
It is used to treat roots while transplanting to check Crown gall. Crown gall is a disease which appear in the rose and other plants caused by soil Borne pathogen called agrobacterium tumifaciensm.
E.) Beautiful Bassiana
It controls Colorado potato beetle.
2. Plant Incorporated Protectants (PIPs)
Plant Incorporated Protectants are the plants which is genetically engineered and they produce pesticides in their on tissue. Some specific genetic sequences, when incorporated into a plant’s genome, can endow the plant with the ability to resist damage from certain pests.
A plant‐incorporated protectant (PIP) is a pesticidal substance that is intended to be
produced and used in a living plant, or in the produce thereof, and the genetic material
necessary for production of such a pesticidal substance.
3. Biochemical Pesticides
Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring substances that control pest by non toxic mechanisms. The substances may be plant extract, fatty acids or pheromones.
It includes substances, such as insect sex pheromones, that interfere with mating, as well as various scented plant extracts that attract insect pests to traps.
Biochemical pesticides includes substances that interfere with mating or growth such as plant growth regulator or substances that attack or remove pest such as pheromones.
4. Botanical pesticides
Naturally occurring plant materials like neem oil, rotenone , tobacco suspensions have the ability to control pest. It has insecticidal properties. They are toxic to the insect extracted or derived from the plants.
The use of botanical insecticides to protect crops and stored products is as old as crop protection. Four major types of botanical insecticides are being used for insect control including pyrethrum, rotenone, neem, and essential oils along with three others in limited use.
1. Biopesticides are less harmful and less envionmental effect.
2. It include effective control of insects plant disease and weeds.
3. ‘Biopesticides’ are more cheaper than chemical pesticides.
4. It do not left any harmful Residue.
5. ‘Biopesticides’ are highly effective than chemical pesticides
6. It do not impact on non target spacies.
7. When used as component of integrated pest management programs biopesticides can contribute greatly.
1. Biopesticides are high specific in action that it require an exact identification of the pest.
2. Slow speed of action that is unsuitable in an immediate treatment of crops.
3. Biopesticides are derived from natural material like plant bacteria which might have Eco ethical issues.
4. Difficulty in culturing in a large quantity.
Application of Biopesticides
1. Biopesticides are usually applied in a similar manner to chemical pesticides but in Environmental friendly way.
2. For effective control, microbial agent require appropriate formulation.
3. Biopesticides used to control internal seed Borne fungal pathogens.